All too often, chronically traumatised people suffer in silence; but if they complain at all, their complaints are not well understood. They may collect a virtual pharmacopeia of remedies: one for headaches, another for insomnia, another for anxiety, another for depression. None of these tend to work very well, since the underlying issues of trauma are not addressed.
Judith Herman M.D. (1992)
Dr Christine Courtois
Horrifying events can be hard to talk about, or may be blocked out and forgotten. It may take years for the symptoms of complex PTSD to be recognised.
Complex PTSD is more severe if:
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FORD, J. and COURTOIS , C. A. July 2014. Complex PTSD, affect dysregulation, and borderline personality disorder. BiodMedCentral Journal. Available from:
HERMAN, J. 1992. Trauma and Recovery: The Aftermath of Violence – from domestic abuse to political terror. Basic Books.
PAPPAS, M. November 2019. What is Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD)? ACES Connection web article.
SPERMON, D. et al. 2010. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for complex
trauma: targets, focus, applications, and outcomes. Psychology Research and Behavior Management. Dovepress. Available from:
VAN DER KOLK, B. 2014. The Body Keeps the Score: Mind, Brain and Body in the Transformation of Trauma. Penguin. Random House UK.
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